The degree to which retirement decisions are driven by health is a key concern for both academics and policy makers. In this review, we survey the economic literature on the health–retirement link in developed countries. We describe the mechanisms through which health affects labor supply and discuss how these mechanisms interact with public pensions and public health insurance. The historical evidence suggests that health is not the primary source of variation in retirement across countries and over time. Furthermore, the decline of health with age can only explain a small share of the decline in employment near retirement age. Health considerations nonetheless play an important role, especially in explaining cross-sectional variation in employment and other outcomes within countries. We review the mechanisms through which health affects retirement and discuss recent empirical analyses.